David Golumbia says that the ideas influencing bitcoin advocates emerge from right-wing extremist movements such as the Liberty Lobby and the John Birch Society and their anti-Central Bank rhetoric, or, more recently, Ron Paul and Tea Party-style libertarianism.[132] Steve Bannon, who owns a "good stake" in bitcoin, considers it to be "disruptive populism. It takes control back from central authorities. It's revolutionary."[133]
The price of bitcoins has gone through cycles of appreciation and depreciation referred to by some as bubbles and busts.[159] In 2011, the value of one bitcoin rapidly rose from about US$0.30 to US$32 before returning to US$2.[160] In the latter half of 2012 and during the 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis, the bitcoin price began to rise,[161] reaching a high of US$266 on 10 April 2013, before crashing to around US$50. On 29 November 2013, the cost of one bitcoin rose to a peak of US$1,242.[162] In 2014, the price fell sharply, and as of April remained depressed at little more than half 2013 prices. As of August 2014 it was under US$600.[163] During their time as bitcoin developers, Gavin Andresen[164] and Mike Hearn[165] warned that bubbles may occur.
Using Ethereum’s “Turing complete” smart contract language, Solidity, developers are able to deploy a set of instructions to the blockchain that operate indefinitely with a high degree of finality and fraud-resistance. With the first block being mined in July 2015, Ethereum has since become the largest smart contract platform of its kind, and the second largest blockchain of all time as measured by market capitalization.
By comparison to government-backed global currencies, Bitcoin remains fairly complex for the typical user to acquire and use in regular transactions. Growing interest and significant global investments in Bitcoin wallet and Blockchain technology have nonetheless made buying and selling Bitcoin far more accessible to the average user. And indeed growing acceptance by government entities have ameliorated the ambiguity of legal and regulatory status for Bitcoin and Bitcoin exchanges.
تتمتع عملة البيتكوين بقدر عالٍ من السرية. مبدئيا الأمر صحيح، حيث أن كل ما تحتاجه لإرسال بعض البيتكوينات لشخص آخر هو عنوانه فقط. لكن بحكم أنه يتم تسجيل كل عملية تحويل في سجل بيتكوين فإنه بالرغم من عدم معرفتك لهوية مالك أي عُنوان إلا أنه بمقدورك أن تعرف كم عدد البيتكوينات التي في حوزته وما هي العناوين التي أرسلت بيتكوينات إليه. إن قام أحدهم بالإعلان صراحة عن امتلاكه لعناوين بيتكوين مُعينة فإنه سيُصبح بإمكانك معرفة ما هي العناوين التي قامت بإرسال بيتكوينات إليه وما هي العناوين التي أرسل إليها بيتكوينات. الكشف عن عنوان البيتكوين الخاص بك ليس مُستبعدا، حيث أنك ستحتاج إلى إعطائه لغيرك في حال ما إذا احتجت أن يرسلوا لك بعض المال إليه. يُنصح باستخدام عناوين مُختلفة لعمليات تحويل مُختلفة للحفاظ على مُستوى مُعين من المجهولية، رغم ذلك هناك الكثيرون ممن لا يقومون بذلك. من الناحية التقنية يبقى تتبع مصدر بعض العمليات المشبوهة على شبكة بيتكوين مُمكنا، حيث يكفي تتبع عمليات التحويل إلى غاية وصولها إلى عنوان معروفة هوية صاحبه، وحينها يكفي القيام بعمليات تحقيق عكسية إلى غاية الوصول إلى صاحب الحساب المشبوه. صحيح بأن كم البيانات المُتعلقة بجميع عمليات التحويل ضخم، إلا أن قوة الحواسيب في تزايد مُستمر وإمكانية تتبع هذه العمليات واردة جدا، بل ويُمكن الجزم بأنه تتبع عمليات سرقة البيتكوينات أسهل بكثير من تتبع سرقة الأموال على هيئتها الورقية.
يقصد بتعدين البتكوين هو استخراجه وتنقيبه ولتبسيط المفهوم فالعملية تشبه استخراج الذهب، الذهب لاستخراجه من باطن الأرض يتطلب معدات معينة مخصصة لذلك الغرض وجهد كبير، الأمر مشابه لتعدين البتكوين فهو يتطلب معدات وبرامج مخصصة تقوم بفك الشفرات والعمليات الحسابية المعقدة ، هذه البرامج مجانية على الانترنت تستطيع تعدين البيتكوين الان على جهازك ولكن للاسف جهازك مهما كانت قوته لن يستحمل الضغط الكهربائي الهائل وسيصاب بالتلف أضف إلى ذلك فاتورة الكهرباء التي ستتسبب بها ، احد الحلول يكمن في التعدين السحابي وهذا التعدين السحابي وهو يتمثل ببساطة أن شركات متخصصة في المجال وتسمى بالمسبح (بالانجليزية: Pool) وهو أن يجتمع مجموعة من الأشخاص لهم نفس الهدف كل يدفع نسبة من المال عبارة عن استثمار وعند الربح يأخذ المال على حسب النسبة التي وضعها.
In the end, the majority of the Ethereum community voted to perform a hard fork, and retrieve The DAO investors money. But not everyone agreed with this course of action. This resulted in a split where two parallel blockchains now exist. For those members who strongly disagree with any changes to the blockchain even when hacking occurs there is Ethereum classic. For the majority who agreed to rewrite a small part of the blockchain and return the stolen money to their owners, there is Ethereum.  
Leveraged trading in foreign currency or off-exchange products on margin carries significant risk and may not be suitable for all investors. We advise you to carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you based on your personal circumstances. Forex trading involves risk. Losses can exceed deposits. We recommend that you seek independent advice and ensure you fully understand the risks involved before trading.
حاليا لا يُملك مالكو عملات بيتكوين خيارات كثيرة لإنفاق أموالهم من خلالها، وهو ما يدفع ببعضهم إلى استبدالها مقابل العملات التقليدية. يتم ذلك عادة عبر منصات خاصة بذلك حيث يتم استبدال البيتكوينات مع مُستخدمين آخرين لها. يبدو أنه وفي حال ما إذا رغبت الحكومات في معرفة هويات أصحاب بعض الحسابات فما عليها سوى أن تقوم بتقنين عمليات التحويل بدل منعها، حيث سيصبح بالإمكان معرفة اسم صاحب كل حساب بُمجرد أن يرغب في استبدال ما بحوزته مقابل عملات تقليدية، وهو ما يُمثل نقطة انطلاق لتتبع الأموال المسروقة.
While it’s still early days, Mist, MetaMask and a variety of other browsers look set to make blockchain-based applications accessible to more people than ever before. Even people without a technical background can now potentially build blockchain apps. This is a revolutionary leap for blockchain technology that could bring decentralized applications into the mainstream.
Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies.[48] Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase,[33][49] Deloitte,[50] R3,[51] Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).[52] Barclays, UBS and Credit Suisse are experimenting with Ethereum blockchain to automate Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) II requirements.

The rapid price increase of Ethereum has not only attracted investors but developers too. Ethereum has tens of thousands of developers in its open source community, each contributing to the many layers of the “Ethereum stack”. This includes code contributions to the core Ethereum clients, second layer scaling tech and the “decentralized applications” (dApps) that are built on top of the platform. The appeal of Ethereum to developers is unique in that it was the first platform to allow anyone in the world to write and deploy code that would run without the risk of censorship. The community of developers which have formed around these core principles have led to the creation of technologies that could not have existed without the inception of Ethereum, many of which were never predicted. Some of the major use-cases of Ethereum so far have been:


There are many ways you can plug into the Ethereum network, one of the easiest ways is to use its native Mist browser. Mist provides a user-friendly interface & digital wallet for users to trade & store Ether as well as write, manage, deploy and use smart contracts. Like web browsers give access and help people navigate the internet, Mist provides a portal into the world of decentralized blockchain applications.
Transactions are defined using a Forth-like scripting language.[7]:ch. 5 Transactions consist of one or more inputs and one or more outputs. When a user sends bitcoins, the user designates each address and the amount of bitcoin being sent to that address in an output. To prevent double spending, each input must refer to a previous unspent output in the blockchain.[77] The use of multiple inputs corresponds to the use of multiple coins in a cash transaction. Since transactions can have multiple outputs, users can send bitcoins to multiple recipients in one transaction. As in a cash transaction, the sum of inputs (coins used to pay) can exceed the intended sum of payments. In such a case, an additional output is used, returning the change back to the payer.[77] Any input satoshis not accounted for in the transaction outputs become the transaction fee.[77]
Ethereum is also being used as a platform to launch other cryptocurrencies. Because of the ERC20 token standard defined by the Ethereum Foundation, other developers can issue their own versions of this token and raise funds with an initial coin offering (ICO). In this fundraising strategy, the issuers of the token set an amount they want to raise, offer it in a crowdsale, and receive Ether in exchange. Billions of dollars have been raised by ICOs on the Ethereum platform in the last two years, and one of the most valuable cryptocurrencies in the world, EOS, is an ERC20 token.
Physical wallets can also take the form of metal token coins[102] with a private key accessible under a security hologram in a recess struck on the reverse side.[103]:38 The security hologram self-destructs when removed from the token, showing that the private key has been accessed.[104] Originally, these tokens were struck in brass and other base metals, but later used precious metals as bitcoin grew in value and popularity.[103]:80 Coins with stored face value as high as ₿1000 have been struck in gold.[103]:102–104 The British Museum's coin collection includes four specimens from the earliest series[103]:83 of funded bitcoin tokens; one is currently on display in the museum's money gallery.[105] In 2013, a Utahn manufacturer of these tokens was ordered by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) to register as a money services business before producing any more funded bitcoin tokens.[102][103]:80

^ Jump up to: a b c d "Statement of Jennifer Shasky Calvery, Director Financial Crimes Enforcement Network United States Department of the Treasury Before the United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on National Security and International Trade and Finance Subcommittee on Economic Policy" (PDF). fincen.gov. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 19 November 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
The U.S. federal investigation was prompted by concerns of possible manipulation during futures settlement dates. The final settlement price of CME bitcoin futures is determined by prices on four exchanges, Bitstamp, Coinbase, itBit and Kraken. Following the first delivery date in January 2018, the CME requested extensive detailed trading information but several of the exchanges refused to provide it and later provided only limited data. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission then subpoenaed the data from the exchanges.[181][182]
Ethereum was initially described in a white paper by Vitalik Buterin,[10] a programmer involved with Bitcoin Magazine, in late 2013 with a goal of building decentralized applications.[11][12] Buterin had argued that Bitcoin needed a scripting language for application development. Failing to gain agreement, he proposed development of a new platform with a more general scripting language.[4]:88
مقارنة بأجزاء أخرى من العالم بدأت الدول العربية في وقت متأخر نسبيا باستخدام بيتكوين حيث أعلن عن قبول هذه العملة لأول مرة في الأردن في بار شاي في العاصمة عمان. وتلى ذلك مطعم بيتزا وصراف آلي في دبي[15] ومن ثم شركة انظمه معلومات في فلسطين[16] كما أصبح سوق السفير من أوئل الاسواق في الكويت و الشرق الأوسط التي تقبل البتكوين في تعاملته [17]. اما بالنسبة للعملة الالكترونية في المشهد الاعلامي العربي فقد بدأت مؤخرا فقرات اخبارية تتحدث عنها ولو بشكل طفيف كما بدأت مواقع متخصصة في اخبار بيتكوين مثل موقع بيتكوين نيوز عربية [18] التابع لمجموعة اعلامية كبيرة،وعلى مستوى الشبكات الاجتماعية يمكن للمستخدمين في الشرق الأوسط وشمال افريقيا التفاعل على موقع askbitcoiner [19] الذي يعتبر أول شبكة اجتماعية للعملة الرقمية في العالم العربي حيث يمكن العثور على الاجوبة للاستفسارات حول العملة الرقمية وتقنية البلوك شاين. وعلى صعيد الشركات اللي توفر خدمات للبيتكون بالوطن العربي فمنهما يلو (بالإنجليزية: Yellow) و بت اويسس (بالإنجليزية: BitOasis) المؤسستان في دبي. بالإضافة إلى بت فلس (بالإنجليزية: BitFils) المؤسسة في الكويت. ويمكن شراء وتداول البيتكوين محليا عن طريق localbitcoins.com .
Any services that are centralized can be decentralized using Ethereum. Think about all the intermediary services that exist across hundreds of different industries. From obvious services like loans provided by banks to intermediary services rarely thought about by most people like title registries, voting systems, regulatory compliance and much more.
Ethereum’s core innovation, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete software that runs on the Ethereum network. It enables anyone to run any program, regardless of the programming language given enough time and memory. The Ethereum Virtual Machine makes the process of creating blockchain applications much easier and efficient than ever before. Instead of having to build an entirely original blockchain for each new application, Ethereum enables the development of potentially thousands of different applications all on one platform.

Izabella Kaminska, the editor of FT Alphaville, has pointed out that criminals are using Ethereum to run Ponzi schemes and other forms of investment fraud.[67] The article was based on a paper from the University of Cagliari, which placed the number of Ethereum smart contracts which facilitate Ponzi schemes at nearly 10% of 1384 smart contracts examined. However, it also estimated that only 0.05% of the transactions on the network were related to such contracts.[68]


بيتكوين (بالإنجليزية: Bitcoin) هي عملة معماة ونظام دفع عالمي يمكن مقارنتها بالعملات الأخرى مثل الدولار أو اليورو، لكن مع عدة فوارق أساسية، من أبرزها أن هذه العملة هي عملة إلكترونية بشكل كامل تتداول عبر الإنترنت فقط من دون وجود فيزيائي لها.[1] وهي أول عملة رقمية لامركزية - فهي نظام يعمل دون مستودع مركزي أو مدير واحد، أي أنها تختلف عن العملات التقليدية بعدم وجود هيئة تنظيمية مركزية تقف خلفها. وتتم المعاملات بشبكة الند للند بين المستخدمين مباشرة دون وسيط من خلال استخدام التشفير. يتم التحقق من هذه المعاملات عن طريق عُقد الشبكة وتسجيلها في دفتر حسابات موزع وعام يسمى سلسلة الكتل. اخترع البيتكوين شخص غير معروف أو مجموعة من الناس عرف باسم ساتوشي ناكاموتو وأُصدِر كبرنامج مفتوح المصدر في عام 2009.
To lower the costs, bitcoin miners have set up in places like Iceland where geothermal energy is cheap and cooling Arctic air is free.[205] Bitcoin miners are known to use hydroelectric power in Tibet, Quebec, Washington (state), and Austria to reduce electricity costs.[204][206] Miners are attracted to suppliers such as Hydro Quebec that have energy surpluses.[207] According to a University of Cambridge study, much of bitcoin mining is done in China, where electricity is subsidized by the government.[208][209]
Various journalists,[205][210] economists,[211][212] and the central bank of Estonia[213] have voiced concerns that bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme. In April 2013, Eric Posner, a law professor at the University of Chicago, stated that "a real Ponzi scheme takes fraud; bitcoin, by contrast, seems more like a collective delusion."[214] A July 2014 report by the World Bank concluded that bitcoin was not a deliberate Ponzi scheme.[215]:7 In June 2014, the Swiss Federal Council[216]:21 examined the concerns that bitcoin might be a pyramid scheme; it concluded that, "Since in the case of bitcoin the typical promises of profits are lacking, it cannot be assumed that bitcoin is a pyramid scheme." In July 2017, billionaire Howard Marks referred to bitcoin as a pyramid scheme.[217]
In September 2015, the establishment of the peer-reviewed academic journal Ledger (ISSN 2379-5980) was announced. It covers studies of cryptocurrencies and related technologies, and is published by the University of Pittsburgh.[231] The journal encourages authors to digitally sign a file hash of submitted papers, which will then be timestamped into the bitcoin blockchain. Authors are also asked to include a personal bitcoin address in the first page of their papers.[232][233]
The domain name "bitcoin.org" was registered on 18 August 2008.[17] On 31 October 2008, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System[4] was posted to a cryptography mailing list.[18] Nakamoto implemented the bitcoin software as open-source code and released it in January 2009.[19][20][11] Nakamoto's identity remains unknown.[10]
Venture capitalists, such as Peter Thiel's Founders Fund, which invested US$3 million in BitPay, do not purchase bitcoins themselves, but instead fund bitcoin infrastructure that provides payment systems to merchants, exchanges, wallet services, etc.[154] In 2012, an incubator for bitcoin-focused start-ups was founded by Adam Draper, with financing help from his father, venture capitalist Tim Draper, one of the largest bitcoin holders after winning an auction of 30,000 bitcoins,[155] at the time called "mystery buyer".[156] The company's goal is to fund 100 bitcoin businesses within 2–3 years with $10,000 to $20,000 for a 6% stake.[155] Investors also invest in bitcoin mining.[157] According to a 2015 study by Paolo Tasca, bitcoin startups raised almost $1 billion in three years (Q1 2012 – Q1 2015).[158]
There are many ways you can plug into the Ethereum network, one of the easiest ways is to use its native Mist browser. Mist provides a user-friendly interface & digital wallet for users to trade & store Ether as well as write, manage, deploy and use smart contracts. Like web browsers give access and help people navigate the internet, Mist provides a portal into the world of decentralized blockchain applications.
The rapid price increase of Ethereum has not only attracted investors but developers too. Ethereum has tens of thousands of developers in its open source community, each contributing to the many layers of the “Ethereum stack”. This includes code contributions to the core Ethereum clients, second layer scaling tech and the “decentralized applications” (dApps) that are built on top of the platform. The appeal of Ethereum to developers is unique in that it was the first platform to allow anyone in the world to write and deploy code that would run without the risk of censorship. The community of developers which have formed around these core principles have led to the creation of technologies that could not have existed without the inception of Ethereum, many of which were never predicted. Some of the major use-cases of Ethereum so far have been:
In 2016 a decentralized autonomous organization called The DAO, a set of smart contracts developed on the platform, raised a record US$150 million in a crowdsale to fund the project.[25] The DAO was exploited in June when US$50 million in ether were taken by an unknown hacker.[26][27] The event sparked a debate in the crypto-community about whether Ethereum should perform a contentious "hard fork" to reappropriate the affected funds.[28] As a result of the dispute, the network split in two. Ethereum (the subject of this article) continued on the forked blockchain, while Ethereum Classic continued on the original blockchain.[29] The hard fork created a rivalry between the two networks.
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