Ethereum-based customized software and networks, independent from the public Ethereum chain, are being tested by enterprise software companies.[48] Interested parties include Microsoft, IBM, JPMorgan Chase,[33][49] Deloitte,[50] R3,[51] Innovate UK (cross-border payments prototype).[52] Barclays, UBS and Credit Suisse are experimenting with Ethereum blockchain to automate Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) II requirements.
In 2014, researchers at the University of Kentucky found "robust evidence that computer programming enthusiasts and illegal activity drive interest in bitcoin, and find limited or no support for political and investment motives".[134] Australian researchers have estimated that 25% of all bitcoin users and 44% of all bitcoin transactions are associated with illegal activity as of April 2017. There were an estimated 24 million bitcoin users primarily using bitcoin for illegal activity. They held $8 billion worth of bitcoin, and made 36 million transactions valued at $72 billion.[225][226]
Bitcoin prices were negatively affected by several hacks or thefts from cryptocurrency exchanges, including thefts from Coincheck in January 2018, Coinrail and Bithumb in June, and Bancor in July. For the first six months of 2018, $761 million worth of cryptocurrencies was reported stolen from exchanges.[64] Bitcoin's price was affected even though other cryptocurrencies were stolen at Coinrail and Bancor as investors worried about the security of cryptocurrency exchanges.[65][66][67]
Transactions are defined using a Forth-like scripting language.[7]:ch. 5 Transactions consist of one or more inputs and one or more outputs. When a user sends bitcoins, the user designates each address and the amount of bitcoin being sent to that address in an output. To prevent double spending, each input must refer to a previous unspent output in the blockchain.[77] The use of multiple inputs corresponds to the use of multiple coins in a cash transaction. Since transactions can have multiple outputs, users can send bitcoins to multiple recipients in one transaction. As in a cash transaction, the sum of inputs (coins used to pay) can exceed the intended sum of payments. In such a case, an additional output is used, returning the change back to the payer.[77] Any input satoshis not accounted for in the transaction outputs become the transaction fee.[77]
بيتكوين ليست العملة الافتراضية الوحيدة المتواجدة حاليًا في الأسواق الافتراضية. فقد برزت بفضل نجاحات ال بيتكوين ، مجموعة متنوعة من ما يسمى ب "altcoins" أو العملات الافتراضية البديلة ذات قيمة جيدة في الأسواق. أهم الفروقات بين البيتكوين وهذه العملات البديلة هي: البتكوين الأصعب في التعدين والأكثر غلاءً بينما العملات البديلة يمكن الحصول عليها عادةً بطريقة أسهل وأرخص، ويمكن أن يكون سعرها أكثر ثباتًا من سعر البتكوين ذات السعر المتقلب، كما أنّ الكثير من هذه العملات تم إنشاؤها لتلافي المشاكل الحاصلة في نظام بتكوين.[20] هذه لائحة بست عملات رقمية بديلة :
The first wallet program, simply named Bitcoin, and sometimes referred to as the Satoshi client, was released in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto as open-source software.[11] In version 0.5 the client moved from the wxWidgets user interface toolkit to Qt, and the whole bundle was referred to as Bitcoin-Qt.[107] After the release of version 0.9, the software bundle was renamed Bitcoin Core to distinguish itself from the underlying network.[108][109]
بيتكوين ليست العملة الافتراضية الوحيدة المتواجدة حاليًا في الأسواق الافتراضية. فقد برزت بفضل نجاحات ال بيتكوين ، مجموعة متنوعة من ما يسمى ب "altcoins" أو العملات الافتراضية البديلة ذات قيمة جيدة في الأسواق. أهم الفروقات بين البيتكوين وهذه العملات البديلة هي: البتكوين الأصعب في التعدين والأكثر غلاءً بينما العملات البديلة يمكن الحصول عليها عادةً بطريقة أسهل وأرخص، ويمكن أن يكون سعرها أكثر ثباتًا من سعر البتكوين ذات السعر المتقلب، كما أنّ الكثير من هذه العملات تم إنشاؤها لتلافي المشاكل الحاصلة في نظام بتكوين.[20] هذه لائحة بست عملات رقمية بديلة :
According to The New York Times, libertarians and anarchists were attracted to the idea. Early bitcoin supporter Roger Ver said: "At first, almost everyone who got involved did so for philosophical reasons. We saw bitcoin as a great idea, as a way to separate money from the state."[126] The Economist describes bitcoin as "a techno-anarchist project to create an online version of cash, a way for people to transact without the possibility of interference from malicious governments or banks".[129]

This website is intended to provide a clear summary of Ethereum's current and historical price as well as important updates from the industry. I've also included a number of ERC20 tokens which can be found in the tokens tab at the top right. Prices are updated every minute in real-time and the open/close prices are recorded at midnight UTC. Bookmark us!

Ethereum was announced at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami, in January, 2014.[9] During the same time as the conference, a group of people rented a house in Miami Gavin Wood, Charles Hoskinson, and Anthony Di Iorio, a Torontonian who financed the project.[9] Di Iorio invited friend Joseph Lubin, who invited reporter Morgen Peck, to bear witness.[9] Six months later the founders met again in a house in Zug Switzerland, where Buterin told the founders that the project would proceed as a non-profit. Hoskinson left the project at that time.[9]
Bitcoin, along with other cryptocurrencies, has been described as an economic bubble by at least eight Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates, including Robert Shiller,[193] Joseph Stiglitz,[194] and Richard Thaler.[195][14] Noted Keyensian economist Paul Krugman wrote in his New York Times column criticizing bitcoin, calling it a bubble and a fraud;[196] and professor Nouriel Roubini of New York University called bitcoin the "mother of all bubbles."[197] Central bankers, including former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan,[198] investors such as Warren Buffett,[199][200] and George Soros[201] have stated similar views, as have business executives such as Jamie Dimon and Jack Ma.[202]
من منظور المنقبين فإن سعر البيتكوين الحالي أقل بكثير مما يجب عليه أن يكون، ولهذا ستجد أنه لا رغبة لديهم في بيع العُملات التي بحوزتهم بأسعار مُنخفضة لأنهم قد استخدموا كميات هائلة من الكهرباء لإنتاجها، إضافة إلى الاستثمار في عتاد خاص للقيام بذلك. الوضع سيزداد سوءا بالنسبة إليهم ما لم ينخفض عدد المُنقبين بشكل مُعتبر، حيث أن عدد العُملات التي سيتم إنتاجها ستنخفض إلى النصف كل 4 سنوات. في المقابل، تم إنتاج كميات كبيرة من البيتكوينات بشكل رخيص جدا في بدايات العُملة لما كان عدد المُنقبين قليلا ولما كان عامل “الصعوبة” hardness منخفضا جدا، وبالتالي حاجة إلى كهرباء أقل، هذا الأمر خلق حالة من اللاتوازن داخل شبكة العُملة، حيث بإمكان أصحاب البيتكوينات القديمة بيع عُملاتهم دون تسجيل خسائر مُقارنة بمن انضموا إلى جبهة المُنقبين مؤخرا.
Ether is a token whose blockchain is generated by the Ethereum platform. Ether can be transferred between accounts and used to compensate participant mining nodes for computations performed.[3] Ethereum provides a decentralized virtual machine, the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which can execute scripts using an international network of public nodes.[4] The virtual machine's instruction set, in contrast to others like Bitcoin Script, is thought to be Turing-complete. "Gas", an internal transaction pricing mechanism, is used to mitigate spam and allocate resources on the network.[4]
Ethereum is also being used as a platform to launch other cryptocurrencies. Because of the ERC20 token standard defined by the Ethereum Foundation, other developers can issue their own versions of this token and raise funds with an initial coin offering (ICO). In this fundraising strategy, the issuers of the token set an amount they want to raise, offer it in a crowdsale, and receive Ether in exchange. Billions of dollars have been raised by ICOs on the Ethereum platform in the last two years, and one of the most valuable cryptocurrencies in the world, EOS, is an ERC20 token.
بروتوكول التوجيه بين البوابات (BGP)   بروتوكول التهيئة الآليّة للمضيفين (DHCP) بروتوكول التطبيقات المقيدة (CoAP) نظام أسماء النطاقات (DNS) بروتوكول نقل النصّ الفائق (HTTP) بروتوكول الوصول إلى رسائل الإنترنت (IMAP) بروتوكول النفاذ إلى الدليل البسيط (LDAP) برتوكول نقل أخبار الشبكة (NNTP) بروتوكول التوقيت في الشبكة (NTP) بروتوكول مكتب البريد (POP) بروتوكول معلومات التوجيه (RIP) بروتوكول التدفق في الزمن حقيقي (RTSP) بروتوكول وصف الجلسة (SDP) بروتوكول بدء جلسة (SIP) بروتوكول نقل الملفات (FTP) بروتوكول نقل الملفات البسيط (TFTP) بروتوكول إرسال البريد البسيط (SMTP) بروتوكول إدارة الشبكات البسيط (SNMP) بروتوكول الاتصال الآمن (SSH) بروتوكول تل نت (Telnet) سبيدي (SPDY) مزيد ..
Various journalists,[205][210] economists,[211][212] and the central bank of Estonia[213] have voiced concerns that bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme. In April 2013, Eric Posner, a law professor at the University of Chicago, stated that "a real Ponzi scheme takes fraud; bitcoin, by contrast, seems more like a collective delusion."[214] A July 2014 report by the World Bank concluded that bitcoin was not a deliberate Ponzi scheme.[215]:7 In June 2014, the Swiss Federal Council[216]:21 examined the concerns that bitcoin might be a pyramid scheme; it concluded that, "Since in the case of bitcoin the typical promises of profits are lacking, it cannot be assumed that bitcoin is a pyramid scheme." In July 2017, billionaire Howard Marks referred to bitcoin as a pyramid scheme.[217]
Every 2,016 blocks (approximately 14 days at roughly 10 min per block), the difficulty target is adjusted based on the network's recent performance, with the aim of keeping the average time between new blocks at ten minutes. In this way the system automatically adapts to the total amount of mining power on the network.[7]:ch. 8 Between 1 March 2014 and 1 March 2015, the average number of nonces miners had to try before creating a new block increased from 16.4 quintillion to 200.5 quintillion.[86]
Though transaction fees are optional, miners can choose which transactions to process and prioritize those that pay higher fees.[77] Miners may choose transactions based on the fee paid relative to their storage size, not the absolute amount of money paid as a fee. These fees are generally measured in satoshis per byte (sat/b). The size of transactions is dependent on the number of inputs used to create the transaction, and the number of outputs.[7]:ch. 8
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• إستثمار البيتكوين يُعتبر مُقامرة: طبقاُ إلى رأى أستاذ الفقه د/جلوى الجميعة أن البيتكوين ما هى إلا عُملات يتم إستخدامها للمقامرة. حيث أن عملة البيتكوين هى عملة إفتراضية إلكترونية ليس لها أى سند أو غطاء من الذهب أو الفضة وبالتالى هى في حُكم الدين تُعتبر سلعة مجهولة المصدر. وبالتالى تتيح حدوث الكثير من عمليات النصب والإحتيال نتيجة لعدم وجود أى جهات رقابية تراقب سير عملية التداول والإستثمار الخاصة بالعملات. كما نهى الرسول تماماً عن مثل هذا النوع من الإستثمار عندما قال ”  صلى الله عليه وسلم عن شراء ما في بطون الانعام حتى تضع، وعما في ضروعها إلا بكيل أو وزن، ونهى عن شراء العبد وهو آبق، وعن شراء المغانم حتى تقسم، وعن شراء الصدقات حتى تقبض، وعن ضربة الغائص”.
Physical wallets can also take the form of metal token coins[102] with a private key accessible under a security hologram in a recess struck on the reverse side.[103]:38 The security hologram self-destructs when removed from the token, showing that the private key has been accessed.[104] Originally, these tokens were struck in brass and other base metals, but later used precious metals as bitcoin grew in value and popularity.[103]:80 Coins with stored face value as high as ₿1000 have been struck in gold.[103]:102–104 The British Museum's coin collection includes four specimens from the earliest series[103]:83 of funded bitcoin tokens; one is currently on display in the museum's money gallery.[105] In 2013, a Utahn manufacturer of these tokens was ordered by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) to register as a money services business before producing any more funded bitcoin tokens.[102][103]:80
It takes a (global) village to raise a blockchain. The live network and the community of open source developers contribute significantly to this effort. They continuously refine and harden the Ethereum platform, helping it get faster at responding to industry demands for the value propositions it offers. These investments of time and resources speak to their faith in Ethereum governance and the value that businesses and developers see in its capabilities. – Joseph Lubin, CEO of Consensys
Ethereum was officially with an unusually long list of founders. Anthony Di Iorio wrote "Ethereum was founded by Vitalik Buterin, Myself, Charles Hoskinson, Mihai Alisie, & Amir Chetrit (the initial 5) in December 2013. Joseph Lubin, Gavin Wood, & Jeffrey Wilke were added in early 2014 as founders." Formal development of the Ethereum software project began in early 2014 through a Swiss company, Ethereum Switzerland GmbH (EthSuisse).[13][14] The basic idea of putting executable smart contracts in the blockchain needed to be specified before the software could be implemented; this work was done by Gavin Wood, then chief technology officer, in the Ethereum Yellow Paper that specified the Ethereum Virtual Machine.[15] Subsequently, a Swiss non-profit foundation, the Ethereum Foundation (Stiftung Ethereum), was created as well. Development was funded by an online public crowdsale during July–August 2014, with the participants buying the Ethereum value token (ether) with another digital currency, bitcoin.

The rapid price increase of Ethereum has not only attracted investors but developers too. Ethereum has tens of thousands of developers in its open source community, each contributing to the many layers of the “Ethereum stack”. This includes code contributions to the core Ethereum clients, second layer scaling tech and the “decentralized applications” (dApps) that are built on top of the platform. The appeal of Ethereum to developers is unique in that it was the first platform to allow anyone in the world to write and deploy code that would run without the risk of censorship. The community of developers which have formed around these core principles have led to the creation of technologies that could not have existed without the inception of Ethereum, many of which were never predicted. Some of the major use-cases of Ethereum so far have been:
Ethereum addresses are composed of the prefix "0x", a common identifier for hexadecimal, concatenated with the rightmost 20 bytes of the Keccak-256 hash (big endian) of the ECDSA public key (the curve used is the so called secp256k1, the same as Bitcoin). In hexadecimal, 2 digits represents a byte, meaning addresses contain 40 hexadecimal digits. An example of an Ethereum address is 0xb794F5eA0ba39494cE839613fffBA74279579268. Contract addresses are in the same format, however they are determined by sender and creation transaction nonce.[34] User accounts are indistinguishable from contract accounts given only an address for each and no blockchain data. Any valid Keccak-256 hash put into the described format is valid, even if it does not correspond to an account with a private key or a contract. This is unlike Bitcoin, which uses base58check to ensure that addresses are properly typed.

As with other cryptocurrencies, the validity of each ether is provided by a blockchain, which is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[30][31] By design, the blockchain is inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is an open, distributed ledger that records transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.[32] Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum operates using accounts and balances in a manner called state transitions. This does not rely upon unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs). State denotes the current balances of all accounts and extra data. State is not stored on the blockchain, it is stored in a separate Merkle Patricia tree. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend ether. These can be generated through BIP 39 style mnemonics for a BIP 32 "HD Wallet". In Ethereum, this is unnecessary as it does not operate in a UTXO scheme. With the private key, it is possible to write in the blockchain, effectively making an ether transaction.


In March 2013 the blockchain temporarily split into two independent chains with different rules due to a bug in version 0.8 of the bitcoin software. The two blockchains operated simultaneously for six hours, each with its own version of the transaction history from the moment of the split. Normal operation was restored when the majority of the network downgraded to version 0.7 of the bitcoin software, selecting the backward compatible version of the blockchain. As a result, this blockchain became the longest chain and could be accepted by all participants, regardless of their bitcoin software version.[38] During the split, the Mt. Gox exchange briefly halted bitcoin deposits and the price dropped by 23% to $37[38][39] before recovering to previous level of approximately $48 in the following hours.[40] The US Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) established regulatory guidelines for "decentralized virtual currencies" such as bitcoin, classifying American bitcoin miners who sell their generated bitcoins as Money Service Businesses (MSBs), that are subject to registration or other legal obligations.[41][42][43] In April, exchanges BitInstant and Mt. Gox experienced processing delays due to insufficient capacity[44] resulting in the bitcoin price dropping from $266 to $76 before returning to $160 within six hours.[45] The bitcoin price rose to $259 on 10 April, but then crashed by 83% to $45 over the next three days.[36] On 15 May 2013, US authorities seized accounts associated with Mt. Gox after discovering it had not registered as a money transmitter with FinCEN in the US.[46][47] On 23 June 2013, the US Drug Enforcement Administration listed ₿11.02 as a seized asset in a United States Department of Justice seizure notice pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 881.[48][better source needed] This marked the first time a government agency had seized bitcoin.[49] The FBI seized about ₿30,000[50] in October 2013 from the dark web website Silk Road during the arrest of Ross William Ulbricht.[51][52][53] These bitcoins were sold at blind auction by the United States Marshals Service to venture capital investor Tim Draper.[50] Bitcoin's price rose to $755 on 19 November and crashed by 50% to $378 the same day. On 30 November 2013 the price reached $1,163 before starting a long-term crash, declining by 87% to $152 in January 2015.[36] On 5 December 2013, the People's Bank of China prohibited Chinese financial institutions from using bitcoins.[54] After the announcement, the value of bitcoins dropped,[55] and Baidu no longer accepted bitcoins for certain services.[56] Buying real-world goods with any virtual currency had been illegal in China since at least 2009.[57] 
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